|Geopolitics and patriotic education|
|Ternovaya L.O. Cossacks and the Golden Horde||9|
|Bulaeva S.V. The Cossacks||18|
|Kaitukov G.B. Participation of schools of North Ossetia in Vsevobuch during the Great Patriotic War||45|
|Kurkov V.V., Listratova O.M. Cossack officers against the historical background of Lawrence of Arabia: missed opportunities for guerrilla warfare following the successful raid of hundreds of Gamalia in 1916||50|
|Lobanov D.A., Nikitina N.N., Nikitin A.Y. Children’s shelters Departments of the Empress Maria Feodorovna||58|
|Siverskaya I.V., Boldyreva L.M., Steinhardt N.S. Features of patriotic education in the Cossack environment in the 18th and early 20th centuries||66|
|History and society
|Barov S.A., Medvedev Yu.S. Historical and geopolitical prerequisites of regional integration in Central Asia||73|
|Sapai M.F., Mardan Maryam, Mohammad Alem Mohammad Tamim The main directions of interaction between the Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in the context of challenges to international security at the present stage||94|
|Dkhar A.P., Shiriiazdanova I.F. India’s Economic and Political Initiatives in the South Asia Region||103|
|Pavlov A.S., Ilichev A.V., Kurylev K.P. Water crisis in Central Asia||119|
|Kirillov Y.A. Bolivar vs Monroe: Analysis of relations between Venezuela and the USA during the presidency of Nicolás Maduro||127|
|Fu Xuejing Archival materials on Chinese migration to the Russian Far East and Siberia in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China||134|
Cossacks and the Golden Horde
The article discusses the reasons for the emergence of different points of view on the connection of the Cossacks with the Golden Horde. It is noted that discussions on this topic, which previously had only a civilizational character and developed in the context of Eurasian studies, have recently acquired a new, geopolitical meaning. The author sees the interest in this topic as a more important question about the role of the human factor in establishing links between individual management models, about the ways of broadcasting the experience of mastering different spaces, which is actualized by the crisis of a number of global processes. A way out of a crisis state can be found through a more attentive study of the past.
Keywords: history, Cossacks, Golden Horde, empires, military class groups.
In 2019 after my trip to Rostov-on-Don and meeting with descendants of the Cossacks, I was imbued with their courage and huge role in the history of Russia. At that time, I had already been engaged in the translation of Hermann Roskoshny's book "Russia: Country and People" (1882-1884), which I got acquainted with in the library of the wonderful Ivanovo State Museum of Local History named after D. G. Burylin. Returning to Ivanovo, where I lived at that time, I decided to translate the chapter of the book by Hermann Roskoshny "Russia: Country and People", dedicated to the Cossacks, in order to preserve this historical chronicle and to acquaint readers with the impressions of the Germans who lived in the late 19th century, of the Cossacks’ way of life.
Keywords: Zaporozhian Cossacks, Don Cossacks, Cossacks’ way of life, Orthodox Faith.
Participation of schools of North Ossetia in Vsevobuch during the Great Patriotic War
For the first time in regional historiography, the article raises the issues of pre-conscription training, which have not been properly applied in research. The introduction of informative sources on General education in schools in North Ossetia allows us to reconstruct the methods and principles of pre-conscription training of young people for wartime conditions. This allows us to establish general patterns and specifics of regional processes. A comprehensive analysis of the deposited material of various types and properties, often introduced for the first time into scientific circulation, made it possible to fill in the gaps existing in the regional historiography of Soviet history.
Keywords: school, students, curriculum, Vsevobuch.
Cossack officers against the historical background of Lawrence of Arabia: missed opportunities for guerrilla warfare following the successful raid of hundreds of Gamalia in 1916
The article analyzes the reasons why partisan actions, despite the presence of numerous Cossack formations were not widely used by the Russian command on the Caucasian front of the First World War against the historical background of the successful activities of the British intelligence officer T.E. Lawrence in the Turkish rear. The main attention of the authors is drawn to the results of the heroic raid of the Kuban hundred Gamaliya.
Keywords: World War I, Caucasian Front, Lawrence of Arabia, Guerrilla Warfare, Gamalia Raid.
Children's shelters Departments of the Empress Maria Feodorovna
In pre-revolutionary Russia, charity was the norm for people with wealth and power. Representatives of different generations of the ruling dynasty took an active part in charitable activities in the 19th - early 20th centuries. One of the most widespread areas of charity was helping orphans, which was expressed in the opening and maintenance of orphanages. The article examines the activities of orphanages that functioned in the system of the Department of Empress Maria Feodorovna in the XIX - early XX century. The activity of the Council of Children's Shelters and the Committee of the Main Guardianship of Children's Shelters, which played an important role in the system of raising children in orphanages, is described in detail.
An analysis of the sources containing information on the activities of the orphanages of the Department of Empress Maria Feodorovna suggests that the main efforts of the Department were focused on the formation of moral principles among the orphanages. The charitable activities of orphanages and other educational institutions of the Office of the Empress Maria Feodorovna can serve as an example for modern benefactors and the state in organizing aid to orphans and charity in the educational sphere today.
Keywords: charity, orphanhood, orphanages, the Office of the Empress Maria Fyodorovna, trusteeship.
Features of patriotic education in the Cossack environment in the 18th and early 20th centuries
The article presents the development of the system of patriotic education of the Cossacks in Russia in the 18th - early 20th centuries, which was primarily due to the historical need to protect its state interests.
The patriotic education of the Cossacks of the pre-revolutionary period was interpreted as an integral part of religious and moral education, which is a purposeful, consistent and systematic process of forming the moral and psychological qualities of the Cossacks necessary for the armed defense of their Fatherland.
Keywords: patriotism, Cossacks, cultural-historical, socio-political, psychological-pedagogical, military-technical, spiritual and physical components of education.
Historical and geopolitical prerequisites of regional integration in Central Asia
The article is devoted to the analysis of the historical premises of regional integration in Central Asia during the last 30 years which went through a difficult path, from the almost complete absence caused by the disruption of economic life after the collapse of the USSR, a permanent political crisis and numerous armed conflicts, until the formation of the strategic partnership relations among the countries in the framework of regional integration associations.
The authors paid special attention to the consideration of the geopolitical conditions for the development of integration in the region, the approach of different countries to it, especially Russia, China and the United States, as well as a comparative analysis of various integration models developed within the framework of such regional structures as the EurAsEC, the SCO and the CSTO. The authors carefully analyzed the history of the formation of these organisations and their practical activities to maintain socio-economic and military-political stability in the region against the background of the aggressive and destructive foreign policy of the United States and its satellites.
According to the authors, the integration in the region has not acquired the explicit format yet, it is controversial and subject to many risks, mostly related to inconsistent policy of regional elites, however, integration aspirations of the Central Asia peoples who are tired of decades of anarchy and disruption, combined with the beneficial foreign policy of Russia and China, have taken a firm line on maintaining stability in the region and coordinating its policies with each other, consistently contribute to the formation of the CAR’s new reality, on the basis of which, in the future, it is possible to develop politically partner relations among the countries and turn the region into a space of military-political stability and rapid economic growth.
At the same time, the parties commitment to development of multi-speed integration with maximum consideration of different interests contributes to a certain competition between regional organisations, which is sometimes successfully used by external forces, in connection with that the authors propose to determine the basic format of integration in the region and start a gradual transition to the transfer of part of the powers of national governments to supranational institutions.
Keywords: Central Asia, Russia, China, USA, EurAsEC, SCO, CSTO, geopolitics, regional integration, interstate relations.
Mohammad Alem Mohammad Tamim
The main directions of interaction between the Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in the context of challenges to international security at the present stage
This article examines the problem of the main directions of interaction between the Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in the context of challenges to international security at the present stage. The author analyzed the prerequisites and reasons for Russia's participation in resolving the Afghan problem. In addition, the main directions of interaction between the two states in their genesis are characterized. It was concluded that, for a whole range of reasons, Russia is interested in an early peaceful resolution of the Afghan conflict, therefore it has been taking steps in this direction recently.
Keywords: Russian Federation, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Central Asian region, international security, terrorism, extremism, Islamic fundamentalism.
India's Economic and Political Initiatives in the South Asia Region
The article is devoted to the analysis of India's regional economic initiatives in South Asia. The object of the research implies India as a regional leader of South Asia, possessing both geographical advantages and economic strength, as well as the role and influence of the country on regional processes. The subject of the study is India's economic bilateral and multilateral initiatives within the region. In particular, Indian projects in Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Myanmar, as well as the integration projects of BBIN and BIMSTEC were considered.
The relevance of the study is rooted in the growing role of India in global processes that are linked with the ones in the regional context. The analytical and systematic approaches were used as a methodological basis and allowed conduct an objective analysis of the problems stated the article.
The author comes to the conclusion that the activation of Indian regional policy is largely correlated in the context of China's Belt and Road Economic Initiative, which challenges India's interests in the zone of traditional influence.
Keywords: India, regional policy, South Asia, strategy, economic initiatives, SAARC, BIMSTEC, BBIN, Gujral Doctrine, Look East policy.
Water crisis in Central Asia
Water resources have always played an important role in human life. It is known from history that the overwhelming majority of settlements were formed near freshwater sources. The drying up of such a source has always been a big problem, since, in this case, the population had to look for water, otherwise, it had to fight for survival either with natural conditions, or with societies that possess this resource in abundance. Today, the lack of water resources has not lost its relevance, but on the contrary, has acquired a new color, since today water is associated not only with population growth, but also with the active development of industry, which directly affects the development of mankind. This problem is very relevant for the Central Asian region for a number of reasons, firstly, the geographical location of water resources in Central Asia strongly influences their distribution: either little or no water flows into the lowland areas, while the high-mountainous areas abound. Secondly, the water problem is strongly influenced by its global nature, since a number of countries belonging to the Central Asian region and located downstream of the rivers suffer from it: Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The aim of the work was to study the history of the water crisis and its impact on the situation of countries in Central Asia. In addition, the authors of the work set the goal of analyzing the relationship between the countries of the region in developing a mutually beneficial way out of the current crisis, as well as their individual attempts to solve the water problem.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, two large rivers of the Central Asian region - the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya began to cross the borders of five newly independent states: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, which, ultimately, could lead to an increase in the level of tension, and in if the conflict escalates, it will lead to the emergence of "water wars". Various social groups begin to fight for water, which is the basis for human life, as well as a scarce resource. In addition, for the states of Central Asia, water plays an important role, since they exist in an arid climate. And to achieve the goal, the following tasks were formulated: firstly, to analyze the historical context of the problem, in particular, its origins, secondly, to study the impact of water imbalance on the relations of the countries of the region, and, thirdly, to identify the attempts of the states of the Central Asian region to solve this problem. situations both jointly and individually.
Keywords: water crisis, Central Asia, Fergana Valley, transboundary rivers, water resources, interstate conflicts.
Bolivar vs Monroe: Analysis of relations between Venezuela and the USA during the presidency of Nicolás Maduro
This paper examines the main aspects of the confrontation between Venezuela and the United States in the diplomatic, political, and economic spheres during the presidency of Nicolás Maduro. Overlaps and disagreements between the states on a diplomatic level were examined on votes in the UN General Assembly and Security Council. Trade figures between the U.S. and Venezuela from 2013 to 2018 were examined on UNCTAD statistics. The origins of the anti-American vector in Venezuela's foreign policy, its participation in the formation of regional alliances such as ALBA and Petrocaribe were explored in the context of U.S.-Venezuelan relations and attempts at humanitarian intervention in Venezuela. The role of international recognition of the parallel regimes of oppositionist Juan Guaido and Nicolás Maduro was also highlighted. As a result, it was concluded that the divergence between Venezuelan and U.S. sides in the UN Security Council and General Assembly only touched upon issues related to political instability in Venezuela and aspects of its national security. The main channels of interaction between the U.S. and Venezuela are economic operations and the UN General Assembly. The study concluded that the political confrontation between Venezuela and the U.S will not escalate to the stage of open conflict.
Keywords: Venezuela, USA, clash, socialism, Monroe, Bolivar Revolution, Nicolás Maduro.
Archival materials on Chinese migration to the Russian Far East and Siberia in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China
At the end of the Qing Dynasty and during the establishment of the Republic of China, influenced by both domestic and foreign influences, large numbers of Chinese traveled to the Far East and Siberia of Russia to earn a living. The Chinese in Russia have played a certain role in the development of Sino-Russian relations, the development of the Far East and the development of border towns. This article is intended to assess the role of materials from modern foreign and Chinese archives that raise the problem of Chinese migration in scientific research on the history of the Chinese nation as a whole. At the end of the Qing Dynasty and during the establishment of the Republic of China, influenced by both domestic and foreign influences, large numbers of Chinese traveled to the Far East and Siberia of Russia to earn a living. The Chinese in Russia have played a certain role in the development of Sino-Russian relations, the development of the Far East and the development of border towns. This article is intended to assess the role of materials from modern foreign and Chinese archives that raise the problem of Chinese migration in scientific research on the history of the Chinese nation as a whole. The objectives of the study were: to characterize the contribution of Chinese migrants to the development of a new country to live in, as well as a genetic homeland; a list and a brief description of the main sources of information on the topic "Chinese in Russia"; substantiation of the need for a deeper study of this scientific problem The text of the work lists some scientific works of researchers who organized field trips to those territories of Russia in different periods, which are characterized by a large distribution of Chinese migrants. The author of this work substantiates the need for accumulation, collection, systematization of materials on this topic. Among the options for organizing documentation, the article indicates the creation of a specialized database on the platforms of universities, which will also radically affect the popularization of this problem in scientific circles and will give impetus for further research. The author of the work identifies those facts of the life of Chinese migrants that it seems possible to study from official papers, newspaper and magazine articles and notes, scientific literature, information from expeditionary records. In addition, the article offers a list of those territories that today remain outside the focus of scientific attention of researchers.
Keywords: reign of the Qing dynasty, Republic of China, Chinese in Russia, Far East, Siberia, archival documents of migrants.
Barov S.A., Associate Professor, Candidate of Political Science. Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Department of Foreign Languages and Intercultural Communication, Faculty of International Economic Relations.
Boldyreva L.M., Senior Lecturer, Armavir State Pedagogical University.
Bulaeva S.V., Candidate of Pedagogy, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Foreign and Russian Languages of the Academy of State Fire Service of the EMERCOM of Russia.
Dkhar A.P., PhD Student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Fu Xuejing, Librarian, Heihe University.
Ilichev A.V., 2nd year Master’s Student (Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia) specialty: “International Relations”.
Kaitukov G.B., Post-graduate Student of the second course of the Khetagurov North Ossetian State University.
Kirillov Y.A., Student of the faculty of humanitarian sciences, of The Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia.
Kurylev K.P., Associate professor of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations in Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Doctor of Historical Sciences.
Kurkov V.V., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History of Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University.
Listratova O.M., Magister, focus: History of International Relations in the XX – XXI centuries, Teacher of the Peremishl technical college of transport operation.
Lobanov D.A., Master's student at the Institute of History and Law, Tsiolkovsk Kaluga State University. Priest.
Mardan Maryam, Master's student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Medvedev Yu.S., Associate Professor, Candidate of of Historical Sciences. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences.
Mohammad Alem Mohammad Tamim, Master's student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Nikitin A.Y., Senior Teacher of the Department Informatics and In-formation Technologies of Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University.
Nikitina N.N., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department. Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University.
Pavlov A.S., 2nd year Master’s Student (Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia) specialty: “International Relations”.
Sapai M.F., Bachelor of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Shiriiazdanova I.F., PhD in History, Senior Lecturer, the Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Siverskaya I.V., Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor of Armavir State Pedagogical University.
Steinhardt N.S., Candidate of Technical Sciences, associate professor of Armavir State Pedagogical University.
Ternovaya L.O., Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor MADI (The Moscow Automobile and Road Construction University).