|Geopolitics and patriotic education|
|Butorov A.S., Nesterov A.V., Estrina E.S. Russia’s struggle for strategic stability. Cases of US withdrawal from international treaties||9|
|Ternovaya L.O. Socio-psychological and geopolitical secrets of XYZ letter code||18|
|Bragina D.G., Noev A.I. National-cultural associations of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) as institutions of civil society||28|
|Dmitrieva O.O., Shogenova E.S. Donald Trump’s Approach towards the Arab-Israeli Conflict||39|
|Xu Chuan, Makkaveeva S.S. From “Returning to the Middle East” to “Middle East rebalancing” - a review of Russia’s Middle East policy during of Putin’s period||45|
|Shamsutdinova Aza The role and influence of Islam on the internal political development of France||54|
|History of science and technology|
|Titov A.A. Scale, dynamics and features of the missile production for Missile Forces and Artillery testing and equipping (1946 - 1961)||62|
|Kipriyanova N.V. Undersigned slaves” and “Mother of the Fatherland”: attitude merchants to power (based on the materials of the Laid Commission)||71|
|Rodeh Horieh Syrian-Turkish relations in 2000-2010||78|
|Kuznetsov G.T., Voroshilova V.N. On the history of the study of the relationship between the Sun and the Biosphere||83|
Russia's struggle for strategic stability. Cases of US withdrawal from international treaties
In the context of significant changes in the world order and the ongoing confrontation between the United States and Russia, the problem of strategic stability in international relations is becoming increasingly important. The unilateral US withdrawal from the 1972 ABM Treaty in 2001 and the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in 2019 testify to the erosion of the international legal framework in the field of arms reduction and significantly increase the risks of international tension. In these unfavorable conditions, Russia is faced with the task of finding adequate ways to preserve the mechanisms of strategic stability and confront US hegemony.
Keywords: strategic stability, USA, RF, NATO, US foreign policy, cold war, arms reduction, world order, international security.
Socio-psychological and geopolitical secrets of XYZ letter code
The article deals with the problem of systematizing various social, managerial and geopolitical processes and fixing their differences using alphabetical order. For all its simplicity, such an order already at the initial stage of its comprehension provides quite deep foundations for analysis, since each letter carries the symbolic meaning that has been embedded in it since the birth of the alphabet, and over time absorbed new characteristics. In this regard, the last letters of the Latin alphabet, used in mathematics to designate unknown quantities, are just as suitable for conveying information about many social and political realities, including geopolitical strategies.
Keywords: history, international relations, geopolitics, symbols, alphabetical order, pseudonym.
National-cultural associations of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) as institutions of civil society
In the post-Soviet period, the multinational Republic (Sakha) (Yakutia) began the active formation of national cultural associations and communities. This article focuses on such an urgent and little-studied topic as the activities of national cultural associations in the civil society system. The authors pay attention to the manifestations of the general and special in these associations, as self-organizing organizations of the population. To this end, the authors identify the main activities of national cultural associations in Yakutia. The socio-political activity of the Yakuts in the 90s of the twentieth century is manifested through the activities of national-ethnic movements and associations as centers of unification of the Yakuts around the national idea. Russian Russian public organizations initially focused on the protection of social, political and cultural rights, and later more attention is paid to the promotion of historical and cultural traditions of the Russian people. The authors also pay attention to the creation of national-cultural associations of ethnographic and social groups of the Russian people. The article shows the active activity of representatives of the small peoples of the North and their associations. Ukrainians, Belarusians, Tatars and representatives of other nationalities also create national communities promoting national traditions and cultures, spirituality of the peoples of the republic, advocating for the restoration of the historical memory of the peoples inhabiting the republic. The authors of the article noted foreign diasporas that create and develop their public national and cultural associations. The article shows the special position of the Lithuanian community "Gintaras" (Amber), the Finnish Cultural Society of Yakutsk, the Polish public association "Polonia" as descendants of exiles in Yakutia.
The article is devoted to the national-cultural associations created in the post-Soviet period, which did a lot to establish interethnic dialogue and harmony in the multinational republic, actively participated in the formation and development of civil society in Yakutia.
Keywords: Republic of Sakha, Yakutia, civil society, national cultural associations, national culture, customs, traditions.
Donald Trump’s Approach towards the Arab-Israeli Conflict
The US is considering Israel to be its traditional partner in the Middle East. The US has made a number of attempts to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict. With the mediation of the United States, the historic Madrid Peace Conference were organized. Since the beginning, the US presidential administrations have paid special attention to the conflict. Donald Trump's approach departed from the traditional understanding of the Arab-Israeli conflict, thereby consolidating the existing "status quo" and giving priority to Israeli interests.
Keywords: Arab-Israeli conflict, Israel, Palestine, USA, Donald Trump, deal of the century.
From “Returning to the Middle East” to “Middle East rebalancing” - a review of Russia's Middle East policy during of Putin’s period
Russia's intensified foreign policy in the Middle East began when Russia officially entered the Syrian civil war in 2015. In the concept and practice of Russian foreign policy, the Middle East policy has experienced three stages - returning to the Middle East, intervening in conflicts, and restoration of balance in the Middle East. The reduction of US military presence in the Middle East has become a strategic prerequisite for Russia's participation in the Middle East settlement. Through economic development and the completion of military reform, the Russian army seized the opportunity of counter-terrorism, and began to actively participate in the Syrian civil war. Russia has successfully established relations and maintained cooperation with all major regional players in the Middle East - Saudi Arabia and Iran, Turkey and Egypt, Palestine and Israel, despite their contradictions. During Putin's administration, Russia's Middle East policy generally achieved positive results, and the military victory of the Russian army in Syria established a high prestige among all parties, it has also reduced tensions in hot spots. So far, the formation and development of the situation in the Middle East are in line with Russia's wishes. In 2021, under the influence of the Russian Federation, there was a "rebalancing" state in the Middle East. This paper will study the implementation process and effectiveness of Russia's Middle East Policy during Putin's administration.
Keywords: Russia, Middle East, Middle East policy, Syrian civil war, return to the Middle East, rebalancing.
The role and influence of Islam on the internal political development of France
The article discusses the reasons for the increased popularity of nationalist political parties. The author emphasizes that the critical state of France's national policy was not only the result of recent unsuccessful presidencies. By referring to the history of the tragic events of the last two decades and analyzing the laws governing the issues of national policy and the integration of immigrants, the author speaks of a shift in the domestic political axis towards right-wing parties that are skeptical toward Muslim immigrants. The statistic shows dangerous trend: the majority of Muslims living in France stand for the complete separation of the Muslim population from the native French, and the number of immigrants is 10% of the total population of the country. Ιndicative were τhe results of the last resident elections in France, held in April 2022, when the leader of the former fringe «National Front» party, Marine Le Pen, was a stone's throw away from the presidency.
Keywords: France, internal policy, immigrant crisis, politics, Muslims, Islam in Europe, Muslims in France.
Scale, dynamics and features of the missile production for Missile Forces and Artillery testing and equipping (1946 - 1961)
The article reveals the features of the development of the military-industrial complex on the example of improving the production of missile weapons on the territory of the USSR in the post-war years. The ongoing confrontation between the US and the USSR required the Soviet military-industrial complex to take measures to improve the corresponding weapons and the efficiency of their production.
Europe was recognized as the main theater of the future war. Trying to maintain its position, the United States actively began to deploy nuclear missiles in Western Europe. One of the main tasks of the USSR became to cover all the ranges included in the zone of operational-tactical defense.
During this period, the main efforts of the USSR Ministry of Defense research institutions, as well as scientific, scientific-industrial and industrial enterprises of the Soviet military-industrial complex, were aimed to the development of new weapons systems capable to resist American nuclear attack weapons. The most important task for the USSR became to launch mass production of operational-tactical ballistic and cruise missiles, as well as tactical ballistic missiles.
The fantastic efforts of the Soviet military-industrial complex to improve the quality of the technical equipment of the Soviet Armed Forces, primarily nuclear missiles, lead to equalization of the strategic potentials of these two systems.
Keywords: development and design office, long-range ballistic missile, operational-tactical missiles, tactical missiles, rockets for heavy rocket launchers, cruise missile.
Undersigned slaves" and "Mother of the Fatherland": attitude merchants to power (based on the materials of the Laid Commission)
In the presented article, on the basis of the city deputies' orders to the Laid commission of 1767-1768, the merchants' idea of the supreme power is analyzed.
The convocation of the Legislative Commission had a certain propaganda value. At the same time, the government got the opportunity to collect objective information from representatives of most regions of Russia about real shortcomings in the legislation and abuses in local government. The merchants perceived the supreme power in a somewhat consumerist way– as protection, patronage, a source of benefits. Despite the idea of the divine essence of power, the merchants did not consider it possible to serve it free of charge and demanded compensation for all expenses spent on state needs. Along with patrimonial paternalism, patriarchal-subordinate views, patriotism, and traditionalism were present in the views of the commercial and industrial population. To protect their own interests, merchants were ready to take part in the activities of local authorities on terms of service (in sovereign affairs), and not burdens (duties). The author comes to the conclusion that at this stage it is too early to talk about the political culture of the merchants as such. The merchant class itself was still in the process of formation.
Keywords: Russia, 18th century, merchants, Legislative commission, deputy orders, political culture, attitude to power.
Syrian-Turkish relations in 2000-2010
High-intensity political relations between Turkey and Syria became possible after the signing of the Adana Agreements in 1998, which intensified bilateral cooperation in the economic, political and cultural spheres. Thanks to them, the Kurdish issue between Damascus and Ankara was resolved at that time. This made it possible to intensify humanitarian issues unrelated to territorial problems. Thanks to the temporary settlement of the conflict, there was an opportunity for the development of the region.
Keywords: Syria, Turkey, Middle East, relations, cooperation, contradictions, Adana agreements.
On the history of the study of the relationship between the Sun and the Biosphere
The article presents a historical review of studies devoted to the study of the influence of solar activity fluctuations on living systems of different levels. The connection of natural processes with socio-psychological ones is shown. Based on the analysis of the material, the role of A. L. Chizhevsky is emphasized, whose views became the basis for the development of ideas about the rhythm and synchronization of terrestrial and solar rhythms, manifested in all physiological processes, in the regularity of epidemics, epizootics and socio-psychological unrest in society.
Keywords: history, earth, sun, space, biosphere, cycles, rays, natural science, cells, viruses, interaction, periodicity, society, biorhythmology, epidemics, research, synchronization, heliobiology.
Bragina D.G., Doctor of Historical Sciences. Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
Butorov A.S., PhD in history, Senior lecturer. Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia.
Dmitrieva O.O., Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at People’s Friendship University of Russia.
Estrina E.S., 2nd year master's student of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Region studies. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Kipriyanova N.V., Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History, Archeology and Local Lore, Alexander Grigorievich and Nikolai Grigorievich Stoletov Vladimir State University.
Kuznetsov G.T., Associate Professor of the Department of Special Pedagogy and Natural Science Disciplines State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education. Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute.
Makkaveeva S.S., Doctoral Student of Shandong University (Qingdao, China), School of Political Science and Public Administration.
Nesterov A.V., 2nd year master's student of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, "International Relations". Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Noev A.I., Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences. Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
Rodeh Horieh, PhD student, Department of History and Archeology of International Relations. Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia.
Shamsutdinova Aza, Postgraduate Student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Shogenova E.S., Undergraduate student of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at People’s Friendship University of Russia.
Ternovaya L.O., Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor MADI (The Moscow Automobile and Road Construction University).
Titov A.A., Deputy Head of the Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy.
Voroshilova V.N., Senior Lecturer of the Department of Special Pedagogy and Natural Sciences, Disciplines State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education. Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute.
Xu Chuan, Doctoral Student of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies (Guangzhou, China), School of International Relations.