|Geopolitics and patriotic education|
|Narmaev M.B. The transformation of the Chinese direction of US foreign policy: from Trump to Biden||9|
|Tian Ye Cooperation between the PRC and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Field of Transboundary Rivers: Problems and Prospects||22|
|Suslov A.U. The Writer and the War: the case of Alexander Konstantinovich Gladkov||33|
|Dyakov S.I., Voynash A.V. Interwar period of development of the system of retraining and advanced training of artillery commanders (from 17.04.1918 to 22.06.1941)||42|
|Dolakova M.I. Some aspects of the activity of a small credit institution in the opinion of the Andreevsky Savings and Loan Association||52|
|Blokhin V.V., Georgieva N.G. Alexander Herzen in search of a worldview||58|
|Danilova E.O., Litvinova I.N., Karagodina O.A. The city of Tsaritsyn as a commercial and industrial center of the South-East of Russia||69|
|Pavlov A.S. The status and position of the Russian language in Kazakhstan, its role in the education system of the republic||77|
|Zapata Ruiz T.A. On the issue of overcoming linguistic interference at the initial stage of learning Spanish||87|
|Polyakov D.I. Black sea gas fields of Turkey in the system of energy relations with the Russian Federation||92|
The transformation of the Chinese direction of US foreign policy: from Trump to Biden
At the present stage of development, Western scientists have begun to note a high level of political polarization taking place in the United States. The subject of the study of this process is the change in the policy of the US presidents, Trump – Republican and Biden – Democrat, in relation to the PRC. The relevance is due to the importance of the United States and China as two key players in the world arena and their bilateral relations.
Keywords: USA, China, US-China relations; US policy; international relations.
Cooperation between the PRC and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Field of Transboundary Rivers: Problems and Prospects
The relevance of the research topic lies in the fact that cooperation between China and Kazakhstan in the field of transboundary rivers goes beyond the direct issue of water resources, having a decisive impact on the healthy development of political relations between the two countries, as well as the security and stability of the region. The purpose of the study is to identify the characteristic features of the development of cooperation between the two countries in the field of transboundary rivers and further prospects for this cooperation. This article analyzes the causes of disputes between the PRC and the Republic of Kazakhstan on transboundary rivers, considers a number of measures taken by China and Kazakhstan to solve this problem, shows the results achieved and put forward proposals for the further development of interstate cooperation. As research methods, the author used the problem-chronological method to study the problem of rivers from the point of view of three successive stages, as well as a comparative approach to analyze the positions of the parties on the problem of water resources. In the course of the study, the author comes to the conclusion that a wide space is still open for the two states to strengthen cooperation on the issue under study, while at the beginning of the 21st century, under the influence of factors such as economic development, population growth, environmental pollution and climate change, as well as the general increase in tension in world politics, the problem of transboundary rivers between China and Kazakhstan is becoming increasingly relevant, determining the general state of China-Kazakhstan relations.
Keywords: China, Kazakhstan, disputes over transboundary rivers, joint use of transboundary rivers, Ili River, Irtysh River, distribution of water resources, environmental protection, transboundary water resources, technical cooperation, "China water threat" theory.
The Writer and the War: the case of Alexander Konstantinovich Gladkov
The diary entries of the playwright and writer A.K. Gladkov (1912-1976) of the war period (1941-1945) are considered. Attention is drawn to the value of Gladkov's diaries as a source on the history of everyday life, literary and artistic (especially theatrical) life of Moscow and the province. The article examines rumors and gossip in Gladkov's diary entries as a socio-psychological phenomenon and a factor in the formation of public opinion during the war.
Keywords: Gladkov Alexander Konstantinovich, diary, the Great Patriotic War, theater, evacuation, rumors.
Interwar period of development of the system of retraining and advanced training of artillery commanders (from 17.04.1918 to 22.06.1941)
The article examines the period between the two World Wars, during which the system of retraining and advanced training of artillery commanders is developing. This system included a network of short-term military courses and schools that pay attention to the development of manuals, charters and instructions for the training of officers of this time. During this period, the courses carried out military scientific work and conducted tests of new artillery equipment and instruments.
Keywords: Luga Artillery Range, Artillery Advanced Training Courses for the Red Army Command Staff (AATC), Artillery Rifle Committee of the Red Army (ARC RA), military scientific work, artillery.
Some aspects of the activity of a small credit institution in the opinion of the Andreevsky Savings and Loan Association
The article examines the activities of the Andreevsky savings and loan partnership, shows the transformation of the charter of a small loan institution, its role in the development of the economic life of the volost, and identifies bureaucratic models for resolving emerging issues related to partnership initiatives.
Keywords: Savings and loan partnership, charter, management of small credit affairs, cash deposits, loans, loans, share contributions.
Alexander Herzen in search of a worldview
In the first third of the 19th century, the topic of science and its role in society was the most popular. Representatives of the Russian intelligentsia sought in science the means to change their lives. Alexander Herzen's essays "Amateurism in Science" became a manifesto of scientific utilitarianism and rejection of the concept of "pure science". Prince Vladimir Odoevsky became the object of Herzen's criticism. According to Herzen, science should serve as an instrument of social change. The subject of science should be human activity.
Keywords: romanticism, classicism, realism, personality, science, worldview, populism.
The city of Tsaritsyn as a commercial and industrial center of the South-East of Russia
The article examines the space of the city of Tsaritsyn, one of the oldest Volga cities in Russia (Tsaritsyn – Stalingrad – Volgograd). The city of Tsaritsyn was founded in 1589, belonged to the territories of late settlement, but later became a major commercial and industrial center of the South-East of Russia, through which various cargo flows passed: timber, metal, coal, oil, etc. The article analyzes the circumstances of the commercial and industrial development of the city. The authors describe historical processes reflected in the ethnic composition of the population, which increased due to the influx of labor and enterprising people, patrons.
Keywords: city, space, population, entrepreneurship, Tsaritsyn, Stalingrad, Volgograd.
The status and position of the Russian language in Kazakhstan, its role in the education system of the republic
In the post-Soviet newly formed republics, after they gained sovereignty, a different socio-economic, political, and including linguistic situation developed. This topic is very relevant, given the recent trend towards a decrease in the use of the Russian language in the relatively “young” Central Asian Republics (including Kazakhstan). As a result of the study, the author was able to demonstrate the trend observed in modern realities towards a gradual decrease in the role of the Russian language in the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the same time, mechanisms and tools are proposed to maintain the status of the Russian language in the region under consideration. In this regard, it is impossible not to note the role of such organizations as Rossotrudnichestvo and the A.S. Pushkin, whose activities are aimed, among other things, at popularizing the Russian language abroad. Thus, the “soft power” of Russia is considered in the framework of the language policy in the countries of the near abroad, as well as the phenomenon of Russian-Kazakh bilingual families.
In conclusion, the author draws conclusions that the current leadership of Kazakhstan is also striving to preserve the Russian language, which is still used by about half of the country's population: the use of the Russian language is retained in state office work, in a number of educational institutions of Kazakhstan, classes are conducted in Russian.
Keywords: Kazakhstan, Russian language, “soft power”, language policy, Central Asia, Russian-Kazakh bilingualism.
Zapata Ruiz T.A.
On the issue of overcoming linguistic interference at the initial stage of learning Spanish
The article provides an issue of the occurrence of linguistic interference in Russian-speaking students who are beginning to learn Spanish, and ways to effectively overcome it. The purpose of this article is to determine the area of interference influence of the Russian language on Spanish at the initial stage of training and make recommendations to overcome the negative impact of this language contact.
Keywords: linguistic interference, language contact, Russian language, Spanish language, effective learning.
Black sea gas fields of Turkey in the system of energy relations with the Russian Federation
The article discusses the energy strategy of the Republic of Turkey, in particular, the impact of the discovered Black Sea gas fields on relations with the Russian Federation. The statements of Tayyip Recep Erdogan, the President of Turkey, state officials of the country, experts in the field of economic development and energy, materials of Russian and Turkish media are used. Taking into account Turkey's situation, energy development strategy, as well as the policy of recent years, it can be concluded that Turkey will continue to increase its exploration and production capacities in the energy sector, not only in the Black Sea, but also in the Mediterranean. In addition, it is determined that Turkey's long-term goal is to solve the problem of energy scarcity, maintain energy independence, and transform into one of the largest energy hubs. In the coming years, Turkey can hardly be expected to abandon Russian gas, but one of the main Russian energy partners may eventually revise the volume of supplies, or demand better conditions for transit to Europe, successfully securing its own production.
Keywords: gas fields, energy policy, Turkey, Black Sea, Sakarya, Russian Federation.
Blokhin V.V., Grand PhD in Historical sciences , Professor of the Department of Russian History. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Danilova E.O., Candidate of Science (Sociology), Junior Researcher Laboratory of Spatial Data Analysis, Historical Reconstruction and Modeling, Volgograd State University.
Dolakova M.I., PhD in History , Department of Anthropology and Ethnography, Kazan Federal University.
Dyakov S.I., Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor. Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy.
Georgieva N.G., Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Russian History. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Karagodina O.A., Candidate of Science (Philosophy), Researcher Laboratory of Spatial Data Analysis, Historical Reconstruction and Modeling, Volgograd State University.
Litvinova I.N., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher at the Laboratory of Spatial Data Analysis, Historical Reconstruction and Modeling, Volgograd State University.
Narmaev M.B., Graduate student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the Faculty of Humanities and Social sciences of the Peoples Friendship University of Russia.
Pavlov A.S., Post-graduate Student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations, majoring in "historical sciences and archeology", Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Polyakov D.I., Master of the Faculty of International Relations, Political Science and Foreign Regional Studies of the Historical and Archival Institute Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian State University for the Humanities".
Suslov A.U., Kazan National Research Technological University. Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Tian Ye, Post-graduate student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Voynash A.V., The applicant. Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy.
Zapata Ruiz T.A., Senior educator of the department of foreign languages, faculty of humanities and socials science. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.