|Ethnology, anthropology and ethnography|
|Shuplenkov O.V., Shuplenkov N.O. Cossack morality in the system of family education||11|
|Troshkina N.G. Educational and missionary activity of the New Jerusalem Monastery in the 18th-19th centuries||22|
|Panasyuk V.V. Activities of zemstvo organizations of the Kaluga province to provide agronomic assistance to peasant farms during the first world war (1914-1917)||32|
|Borduchenko Yu.L., Borodin M.P., Zuev A.V. The system of management of nautical educational institutions in the first years of Soviet power (November 1917 - October 1919)||42|
|Barov S.A. Western theories of regional integration||50|
|Yin Qun From Uganda railway to Mombasa-Nairobi railway: an imagined community and exporting the Chinese model through the “Belt and Road Initiative”||65|
|Historiography, source studies, methods of historical research|
|Egorova M.A., Egorov A.A., Lagutkina M.D., Orlova T.G. Features of identification of the hieroglyphic signs in the ancient writings||80|
|Gorlov M.I. Assessments of the foreign policy course of Alexander III in the Russian pre-revolutionary historiography||87|
|Documentary, documentation science, archiving|
|Chekulaev N.D. Russian Cossacks and North Caucasian Mountaineers: the History of their Trade and economic Relations (1735 – 1796) according to TSGARD documents||93|
|Trofimova N.N. The main approaches to the concepts of efficiency and effectiveness in project management||100|
|History of international relations and foreign policy|
|Sanakoev I.B., Smolik N.G., Gevorgyan A.G. The policy of France during the Second Karabakh war||108|
|Binish Morality in Indian foreign policy||117|
|Ponka T.I., Tran Duy Thanh ASEAN as the leading integration structure of Southeast Asia||127|
|Ponomarenko A.P. Austrian-Ukrainian relations before the start of the SMO on February 24, 2022||141|
|Yenokyan A.V., Smolik N.G., Butorov A.S. Model “One people - two states” and its impact on the perception of Turkey’s image in Azerbaijan||149|
|Adu Y.N., Nwalie G.A. The African institutional system: the influence of institutions Nigerian foreign policy on African issues||155|
|Nikitina T.V. K. Karamanlis and Greek Foreign Policy in the 1970s||160|
|Nikitina T.V. Greek foreign policy on the eve of World War II||166|
|Nurullina A.I. Social and labor rehabilitation of disabled people: historical experience and modernity||172|
Cossack morality in the system of family education
The family as a form of social organization occupies a leading place in preserving the national and cultural identity of the Cossacks. In the Cossack society, the attitude to family values has changed over the decades: from complete rejection of the family and disdain for the woman and the family as a whole to the recognition of the family as a basic value. The dynamics of the Cossacks' ideas about family values and the details of building relationships in the family are clearly presented in relation to the upbringing of children – a kind of cumulative basis of Cossack history and culture.
Keywords: upbringing, Cossacks, culture, father, religion, family, tradition.
Educational and missionary activity of the New Jerusalem Monastery in the 18th-19th centuries
This article is devoted to the educational activities and missionary work of the New Jerusalem Monastery in the period of the 18th-19th centuries. The relevance of the study is due to the study of the history of the monastery during its heyday and its importance in public education and assistance. The purpose of the article was to study the monastery as a cultural phenomenon and played an important role in the spiritual, social, economic and cultural areas of the country. The theoretical value was to complement previous studies. The main methods were analysis and synthesis. The practical significance lies in the fact that the author's conclusions can provide a deeper insight into the spiritual life of the monastery in the period under review.
Keywords: orthodoxy, role, monastery, enlightenment, missionary work.
Activities of zemstvo organizations of the Kaluga province to provide agronomic assistance to peasant farms during the first world war (1914-1917)
The object of the study is the Stolypin agrarian transformations at the beginning of the XX century, the subject of the study is the activity of the zemstvos of the Kaluga province to provide agronomic assistance to peasants during the First World War. The methodological basis of the article consists of the principles of scientific objectivity, historicism, consistency, which makes it possible to identify cause-and-effect relationships of events, phenomena, processes in their dynamics. The source base of the research consists of the records of the zemstvo institutions of the Kaluga province, as well as materials of the central and local periodicals. For the first time in Russian historiography, the author sets the task of analyzing this problem on the example of the region under study. The main attention in the article is paid to the conditions, dynamics and forms of providing rural agronomic assistance to householders. It is concluded that the long and destructive First World War led to the curtailment of the activities of the zemstvos to support local agriculture. The results of the research can be used in the preparation of lecture courses, conducting seminars, writing textbooks.
Keywords: Kaluga province, First World War, zemstvos, agronomic assistance, peasant farming.
The system of management of nautical educational institutions in the first years of Soviet power (November 1917 - October 1919)
The system of management of nautical educational institutions in the first years of Soviet power (November 1917 - October 1919) is considered. On February 27, 1918, the Council of People's Commissars adopted a resolution on the management of the sea and river merchant fleet, and water communications. The Decree transformed the management system of sea and river transport. Under the Supreme Council of the National Economy (VSNKh), the Department of Water Communications was formed. It included "all institutions in charge of water communications and the merchant fleet." It was noted that on March 4, the Council of People's Commissars organized the Collegium of the Department of Water Communications by a special resolution (in some documents it was called the Collegium for the Management of Water Transport). Attention is drawn to the fact that on March 26, 1918, the Collegium for the Management of Water Transport reorganized the Educational Committee for Nautical Education, which acted on the basis of the law of 1904. In March 1918, the Department of Merchant Shipping was transformed into the Department of Maritime Transport, and its educational department was renamed in the cultural and educational part. On May 18, 1918, the Council of People's Commissars adopted a resolution "On the transformation of the governing bodies of water transport." By a resolution, the Department of Water Transport of the Supreme Council of National Economy was renamed the Main Directorate of Water Transport (Glavod), the Collegium of the Department of Water Communications was abolished, and the Supreme Collegium of the Glavod, responsible to the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council, was created instead. It is argued that in the course of implementing the program of introducing the principles of a unified labor school into the life of maritime educational institutions, the Educational Department of the Main Directorate of Water Transport in the autumn of 1918 issued a number of circulars that changed the form of management, the nature of the internal life of educational institutions, the procedure for appointment to teaching positions, etc. It is concluded that, along with measures aimed at democratizing the life of educational institutions, Glavovod made decisions that led to the suppression of civil activity of employees and students, to the prohibition of the activities of public organizations opposed to the Soviet regime.
Keywords: department of merchant shipping, department of maritime transport, educational committee, training, teaching staff, maritime educational institutions, educational department, main department of water transport.
Western theories of regional integration
In modern Western political science, there are four most influential theoretical directions for studying the problem of integration: the school of federalism, the school of functionalism and neofunctionalism, the pluralistic school (communication theory) and the interstate approach (realism). Let us sequentially consider the features of the theoretical developments of each of the schools.
Keywords: integration, territories, schools, analysis, direction, west, state, approach.
From Uganda railway to Mombasa-Nairobi railway: an imagined community and exporting the Chinese model through the "Belt and Road Initiative"
In recent years, China has been accused of exporting its model through building infrastructure under the Belt and Road Initiative to expand regional influence in Africa and Latin America and seek global hegemony, challenging the US-led Western countries. While the infrastructure built in China looks great, it creates big local obligations. Analyzing the history of the development of railways in Uganda, this article analyzes the exploitation and plunder of Africa during the colonial period, and outlines the difficulties faced by the local economy and society after independence. We believe that the motives, goals and consequences of China's construction of the Mombasa-Nairobi railway are very different from those of the British and German colonialists, and Western concern and accusations about the "Chinese model" are more of a deliberate attempt to defame the country after its failure during the rivalry of the great powers.
Keywords: China, Belt and Road Initiative, Africa, imaginary community, British colonial rule model, Chinese infrastructure in Africa, Chinese model, East African community.
Features of identification of the hieroglyphic signs in the ancient writings
A new perspective method for the study of ancient hieroglyphic inscriptions is described. Method permits correctly define characteristics of the identical hieroglyphs in the oldest inscriptions on the digitized data of photometry of the surface of artifacts. It is shown that, for the recognition of hieroglyphs in inscriptions such as Jiaguwen and Jinwen, one can apply, for example, the methods of harmonic analysis. This approach makes it possible to use the representation of the investigated profiles in the form of Fourier series or integrals, which expands the capabilities of the method through the use of various capabilities of Fourier analysis. As a result, this will expand the prospects for using the considering new method of studying hieroglyphic inscriptions.
Keywords: history, hieroglyphic inscription, Jiaguwen, Jinwen, Chinese radicals, linguistics, computer image processing.
Assessments of the foreign policy course of Alexander III in the Russian pre-revolutionary historiography
Purpose: definition of the main approaches to the assessment of the foreign policy course of Alexander III, contained in the pre-revolutionary Russian historiography.
Procedure and methods of research: based on the classification of sources related to various political and scientific areas, the authors conducted a comparative analysis of the assessments of Alexander III's foreign policy, identified the main ways of development of the Russian historiography of the pre-revolutionary period on this topic.
The results of the study: the analysis of theoretical approaches to the assessment of the foreign policy course of Alexander III, presented in the Russian pre-revolutionary, allows us to trace the change in ideological attitudes associated with the transformation of the public consciousness of Russian society in the period of interest to us.
Theoretical significance: the factors influencing the assessment of Alexander III's foreign policy in the Russian pre-revolutionary historiography, as well as the nature and ways of interpreting historical facts, are determined.
Keywords: foreign policy of Russia, Alexander III, pre-revolutionary Russian historiography, directions of Russian historiography.
Russian Cossacks and North Caucasian Mountaineers: the History of their Trade and economic Relations (1735 – 1796) according to TSGARD documents
In this article, on the basis of authentic archival documents of the local archive, one of the sides of the relationship between the Russian Cossacks and the North Caucasian highlanders is recreated. The basis of these documents is the paperwork of the Kizlyar garrison. The Russian Cossacks in the XVIII century in the North Caucasus were represented by three Cossack troops: the Grebensky Tersk and the Tersk– family Cossack troops. At that time, the North Caucasus was a kind of conglomerate of feudal political entities – Dagestan, Chechnya, Kalmykia, Malaya and Bolshaya Kabarda, etc. The Russian Cossacks, having appeared in the North Caucasus in the XVI century, naturally established contacts with the North Caucasian mountaineers living in this territory. Of course, initially there were conflicts between the first Cossacks and mountaineers, but over time both sides established good-neighborly relations between themselves. The close contacts of both sides resulted in interaction and interpenetration in many branches of human lives. Inevitably, the Russian Cossacks and the North Caucasian mountaineers established trade relations among themselves. With the help of trade, both sides were engaged in replenishing those goods and household items that they did not have for one reason or another. So all the Cossack troops were constantly in need of replenishing their cavalry. Kalmyks and Nogais acted as the main suppliers of horses for the Russian Cossacks. The Russian government from time to time bought horses for the needs of the imperial army in the Caucasus. There was not enough bread from the Cossacks and they had to constantly buy it in Dagestan. The place where trade contacts took place between the Cossacks and the North Caucasian highlanders were Cossack villages, as well as mountain villages. The fruits grown in the Caucasus were for the satisfaction and the Highest court of Her Imperial Majesty. The Cossacks and mountaineers jointly engaged in madder farming and sold it to visiting Russian and foreign merchants. Nogais throughout the XVIII century provided transport for a fee – their carts for the needs of the Russian military – for the transportation of various kinds of military cargo, provisions from the coast of the Caspian Sea to Kizlyar and Cossack villages and other outposts. Chechens regularly supplied the black oil they extracted for sale, which was in great demand among the Russian military and the Cossacks.
Keywords: Russia, Caucasus, commandant, Cossacks, village, highlanders, horses, bread, arba, madder.
The main approaches to the concepts of efficiency and effectiveness in project management
Although no one disputes the fact that the efficiency and effectiveness of the project are equally important, the concept of project management involves the use of both concepts, but rarely defines them. The scope of the concept of efficiency is quite wide, and these two terms can be used in a variety of situations.
The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of a clear understanding of the concept of efficiency when working with projects and managing them. Distinguishing the concepts of efficiency and effectiveness will allow the management of project companies to better understand the essence of these concepts, which will allow them to determine the parameters that determine the success of the project before its implementation.
Keywords: project management, efficiency, performance, quality management, organization improvement.
The policy of France during the Second Karabakh war
The dissertation is aimed at researching foreign policy strategy of the Republic of France in the South Caucasus during the Second Karabakh War. The paper analyzes the role of France in these processes. Much attention is paid to the relationship between the co-chairs of the OSCE Minsk Group, as well as separately between France and Turkey. In the scope of the dissertation, the author concludes that the South Caucasus region is of great geopolitical importance both for the West and for Turkey and Russia. During the research, the authors wondered whether the French policy during the war was effective, and whether it achieved its goals.
Keywords: Artsakh, Second Karabakh War, Armenia, France, Azerbaijan, OSCE Minsk Group, South Caucasus, Turkey, Nagorno-Karabakh.
Morality in Indian foreign policy
In this rapidly growing multipolar world, India has indeed seen enormous changes in the last seven decades and it continues to face greater challenges in this multipolar world. A grown-up nation does not allow to its foreign policy to be drastically amend, when a new regime of government comes in a power. In this regard, India has noticeably demonstrated its maturity. After 75 years of independence, implementation of non-alignment, peaceful coexistence, and pacific settlement of global disputes remain core aspects of Nehru's foreign policy, although, Peace and peaceable settlement of international disputes are the essential and main goals of the foreign policy of India. Meanwhile, it oppose any kind of violence, war, and an aggression. Throughout the decades, starting from Jawaharlal Nehru to continuing with Narendra Modi New Delhi has witnessed different shifts in policymaking.
The foreign policy of India has a prominent position in global affairs as a consequence of its unwavering dedication and devotion towards the moral values that are universal, eternal and immutable. Peace-loving and humanitarian attitudes are exemplified in its overall philosophy, which highlights the important characteristics of both Western and non-Western intellectual traditions. Throughout the history, India has always been conscious of the need for the country's foreign policy to be centred on military. India's public diplomacy emphasizes Buddhism strongly Increasing its appeal through soft power as a way to improve it. For centuries to come, India has been influenced by the recommendations of virtues of peaceable coexistence, which were established by Jawaharlal Nehru with his Panchsheel principles. The Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Puranas are the founding texts of ancient Indian philosophical tradition centred around an ethics code of conduct, virtue, and morality. From the Chanakya and Buddha to Mauryan civilization, along with Gandhian traditions toward politics, and from the Nehru till the Modi government, there are historical links of an ethical virtue that can be traced back in Indian politics and global relations.
Keywords: India, morality, foreign policy, international relations and political philosophy.
Tran Duy Thanh
ASEAN as the leading integration structure of Southeast Asia
The proposed article is devoted to the role of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the process of integrating the regional subsystem of Southeast Asia, as well as in creating an institutional framework for interaction with third countries. The purpose of the study is to identify the dynamics of the development of the international regime under the leadership of ASEAN, which has integrated the entire Southeast Asia and is the core of macro-regional integration processes. The regional space under consideration is characterized by high economic dynamism and active integration processes, in which non-regional actors, among others, take part. Particular importance is attached to the history of the development of cooperation between the ASEAN member countries since the formation of this organization and the dynamics of issues, the solution of which united the ten around this integration structure, is traced. Analyzing the institutional framework, the authors focus on the principle of ASEAN-centricity of all mechanisms created in the region, which emphasizes the importance of ASEAN as an integration structure in the region. Assessing the main trends in the development of economic regionalism of the Asia-Pacific region, the authors systematize the key areas of ASEAN's activities for the creation and subsequent optimization of the Economic Community after its formation in December 2015 and identify competitive advantages and strategic pitfalls facing the Association. The proposed article notes that the confrontational tone in relations between China and the United States brings with it many threats, in particular, the clash of state interests in the economic plane and the strengthening of the US military presence, complicated by territorial and historical contradictions. In conclusion, the authors note that at the present stage, ASEAN has become a fulcrum for the construction of a new regional architecture. The member countries of the Organization have been moving extremely cautiously, step by step and as far as possible over the past decades from the state of a purely nominal economic grouping to an increasingly real integration, from the simplest to more complex forms of interaction in the political, economic and socio-cultural fields. At the present stage of its development, the ASEAN countries have set a course to build a Community, which will strengthen the potential and unity of this Organization in a turbulent international environment.
Keywords: ASEAN, Southeast Asia, Vietnam, South China Sea, security in the Asia-Pacific Region, ASEAN Economic Community, ASEAN Security Community, Socio-Cultural Community, China.
Austrian-Ukrainian relations before the start of the SMO on February 24, 2022
Relations between countries as different and politically distant from each other as neutral Austria and post-Soviet Ukraine are almost never studied in isolation from Austrian-Russian relations, where Ukraine is the subject of discussion, and also outside the context of the status of Crimea and the war in Donbass. Meanwhile, given the common history (the western regions of modern Ukraine were part of Austria for a long time), these ties are distinctive and important to study, as they provide an understanding of the negotiating position of Austria and the EU during and after the hypothetical end of the conflict. This article is devoted to the analysis of the Austrian-Ukrainian political, economic and cultural relations before the beginning of the SMO and does not provide forecasts for their future after its completion.
Keywords: Austria, Ukraine, SMO, politics, economy, culture, funds.
Model "One people - two states" and its impact on the perception of Turkey's image in Azerbaijan
Of the three South Caucasian states, Azerbaijan perceives Turkey as an undoubted and unconditional ally. Turkey is regarded as a country that has an identical language, religion, similar traditions, culture, customs, and also has the image of a unifier of the entire Turkic world. The Azerbaijani political elite emphasizes the importance of Turkey as the main ally and expresses its readiness to cooperate with Turkey under the common slogan "one people - two states."
Keywords: Turkey, Azerbaijan, "one people - two states", image, "soft power", culture, ideology.
The African institutional system: the influence of institutions Nigerian foreign policy on African issues
The object of this article is the influence of Nigerian foreign policy institutions on political issues in Africa. The subject of the study are individual institutions of Nigeria: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Departments of Bilateral and Multilateral Relations, the Presidential Advisory Council for Foreign Relations, the Nigerian Institute of International Relations and examples of institutional cooperation: the Lake Chad Basin Commission, the Gulf of Guinea Commission, the Economic Community of West African Nations (ECOWAS ). This study is based on the theory of political realism, which interprets international relations as a constant confrontation between states protecting their national interests. According to this theory, the state of "peace" is unstable, most of the time states are in a state of confrontation, confrontation, or even war. During the study, the authors widely use analytical, institutional and problem-chronological methods.
The main conclusions of the study are the determination of the constancy of Nigeria's foreign policy (Nigeria's foreign policy originates from the moment of gaining independence in 1960, since that time the state has remained committed to the course of Afrocentrism and good neighborliness), the forms of conducting foreign policy relations (Nigeria's foreign policy is based on bilateral and multilateral cooperation both in West Africa and beyond), Afrocentric foreign policy of Nigeria, broad cooperation with various institutions of West Africa (Lake Chad Basin Commission, Gulf of Guinea Commission, Economic Community of West African Nations (ECOWAS)).
Keywords: Nigeria, Institutionalism, West Africa, Afrocentrism, Foreign policy, Bilateral relations, Multilateral relations, ECOWAS, Anti-colonialism, Persistence.
K. Karamanlis and Greek Foreign Policy in the 1970s
The article analyzes the foreign policy priorities of the government of K. Karamanlis, the causes, spheres and stages of development of Russian-Greek relations.
Keywords: K. Karamanlis, Europe, foreign policy, cultural relations, trade, Russian-Greek relations.
Greek foreign policy on the eve of World War II
The article presents the key moments of Greece's foreign policy during the European crisis of 1938-1939, which boiled down to maneuvering between the Anglo-French and Italo-German blocs. The policy of Greece towards the Soviet Union, the Balkan countries is shown, a policy that did not help to avoid war.
Keywords: Greece, foreign policy, Balkans, England, Italy, Germany, European crisis, maneuvering policy, Soviet Union.
Social and labor rehabilitation of disabled people: historical experience and modernity
The problem of disability has always been one of the most urgent for the Russian state. Various social institutions, the foundation of which was laid in the period of the 1920s of the twentieth century, are called upon to help these people in their social rehabilitation.
The practical tasks of our time require a comprehensive analysis of the problems of social rehabilitation of disabled people at work and war, and, consequently, the study and generalization of the historical experience of the 1920s of the twentieth century is of great importance, which determines the choice of our topic. Taking into account the new historical realities, this experience can be used by social institutions at the present stage. At the same time, such an aspect of the problem as the need to find sources of financing social programs, use regional opportunities to improve the living conditions of disabled people, attract them to active work and form an active life position is also taken into account.
Keywords: RSFSR, employment, social policy, disabled people, vocational training, ability to work.
Adu Y.N., PhD in Law, Associate professor of the Department of Human and Social Sciences, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia.
Barov S.A., Associate Professor, Candidate of Political Sciences, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Department of Foreign Languages and Intercultural Communication, Faculty of International Economic Relations.
Binish, Second year PhD student at Peoples Friendship University of Russia.
Borduchenko Yu.L., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Institute of Transport Problems named after N.S. Solomenko, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Borodin M.P., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Retraining and Advanced Training of Specialists, St. Petersburg University of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia named after the Hero of the Russian Federation General of the Army E.N. Zinicheva.
Butorov A.S., PhD in History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Chekulaev N.D., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Research Fellow. Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Daghestan Federal Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences (IHAE DFRC RAS).
Egorov A.A., Dr.Sc., Visiting Professor-consultant, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Egorova M.A., PhD of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Gevorgyan A.G., Senior Lecturer, Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Gorlov M.I., Associate Professor of the Department of Theory and History of Fine and Decorative Arts.
Nikitina T.V., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Nurullina A.I., Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russia.
Nwalie G.A., Post-graduate student, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Russian People’s Friendship University.
Lagutkina M.D., PhD in Philology, Senior Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Philology, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Orlova T.G., PhD in Philology, Associate professor, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Panasyuk V.V., Candidate of Historical Sciences. Associate Professor of the Department of History of the Institute of History and Law, Kaluga State University.
Ponka T.I., Candidate of Historical Sciences. Associate Professor of the Department of History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Ponomarenko A.P., Graduate student of the faculty of International relations, of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, senior lecturer of Department of foreign languages at Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Sanakoev I.B., Professor, Candidate of Political Sciences, Head of the Department of Political Science and Sociology. South Ossetian State University named after A.A. Tibilova.
Shuplenkov O.V., Associate Professor of the Department of history, law and social Sciences of the Stavropol state pedagogical Institute.
Shuplenkov N.O., Associate Professor of the Department of history, law and social Sciences of the Stavropol state pedagogical Institute.
Smolik N.G., Senior Lecturer, Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Tran Duy Thanh, Post-graduate student of the Department of Theory and History. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Trofimova N.N., Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor. Department of Business Informatics and Management, Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation.
Troshkina N.G., Applicant. Moscow State Regional University, teacher of history MOU Rozhdestvenskaya secondary school.
Yenokyan A.V., Postgraduate student, assistant of the Department of theory and history of international relations, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Expert of The Center for Research in Post-Soviet Countries (CRPSC).
Yin Qun, Postgraduate Student of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Zuev A.V., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Private Law, State University of the Sea and River Fleet named after Admiral S.O. Makarov (St. Petersburg).