|Shuplenkov O.V., Shuplenkov N.O. Socio-cultural aspect of the history of the Cossacks in the system of patriotic education of youth||11|
|Sorochan V.V., Ratnikov R.E. Interactive online-services as an essential component of the educational process in the field of it||24|
|Shuplenkov O.V., Shuplenkov N.O. Cossack content in the research space (using the example of materials in the Almanac “Kazachestvo” magazine)||33|
|Topical issues of historical sciences|
|Shapovalov S.N. N.S. Zavadovsky’s Project on the annexation of the Zakuban settlement to the territory of the Black Sea Cossack army||46|
|Borodin M.P., Zuev A.V. Innovative trends in the development and improvement of equipment for the fire and emergency warning system in St. Petersburg in the 19th - early 20th centuries||53|
|Mironova E.A. The study of ancient signs of a single Eurasian cult within the framework of a new science - signology (deciphering the sign “rhombus with a dot”)||58|
|Panasyuk V.V. Activity of the kaluga branch of the peasant land bank at the final stage of stolypin agrarian transformations (1914-1917)||74|
|Teterkina O.A. The history of the emergence and hypotheses of the origin of the ethnonym Kurd||83|
|History and international studies|
|Shpakovskaya M.A., Gafari A.L. India and Asean: problems and prospects for cooperation||93|
|Dhouha Belfekih Key Aspects of the International Organization of La Francophonie’s Cooperation with the UN||99|
|Gökhan Arslan, Makhmutova E.A. The reflection of the English-Russian convention of 1907 and 1908 reval negotiations on the Ottoman Empire||106|
|Zapata Ruiz Т.А. The role of Native American languages in Latin America (on the example of Paraguay)||118|
|Laptev E.A. Russian language role in the development of international academic dialogue in the post-Soviet space (1991 - 2022)||122|
|Muhammad N.I. Russia’s position towards the Kurdish problem||129|
Socio-cultural aspect of the history of the Cossacks in the system of patriotic education of youth
In the multifaceted history of the Russian state, the Cossacks played a special role. The role of the Cossacks in history is huge: they inhabited the outskirts of the state and protected them from external enemies. Patriotism, faithful service to the Fatherland, a peculiar culture, communal land use – all these constitute the best traditions of this estate. It is the revival of these traditions that the activities of the now emerging associations of descendants of Cossacks in various regions of the country are aimed at. The article is devoted to the active educational activity of the Almanac “Kazachestvo” magazine on the Cossack theme.
Key words: Cossacks, pedagogy, historiography, North Caucasus, culture, Almanac “Kazachestvo”, science, research.
Interactive online-services as an essential component of the educational process in the field of IT
The article attempts to analyze the conditions, practices and trends in the introduction and use of interactive online-services as tools to improve the efficiency of the educational process in the preparation of specialists for the IT field. Taking into account the fact that attempts to form an information and educational environment in educational institutions often come down only to solving technical problems, the interaction of individual means and technologies of informatization, our task, through the study of the history of the development of interactive technologies and the evolution of the concept of interactivity in education, listing and detailed analysis of various platforms, information resources, interactive online-services for the implementation of a blended learning system, to prepare and offer, for implementation in the educational process, the widest possible range of tools for high-quality training of specialists in the field of IT.
Key words: IT, digital technologies, interactive technologies, digital literacy, digital competencies, educational programs, online-services, Internet.
Cossack content in the research space (using the example of materials in the Almanac “Kazachestvo” magazine)
Based on numerous materials, the article shows the important role of Cossack pedagogy in Russian education. The Cossacks as a whole can be considered as a complex, multi-compositional phenomenon, a historically formed community that performs security and border functions. The Cossacks formed as an ethnic, social and historical group, which united, due to its specific characteristics, all Cossacks, primarily Russians, as well as other national divisions as separate sub-ethnoses of their peoples into a single whole, with their own educational and educational traditions. The conducted research emphasizes the importance of further study of the history of the pedagogy of the Cossacks as an integral part of Russian culture.
Key words: historiography, Cossack, ethnic group, education, the army, culture.
N.S. Zavadovsky's Project on the annexation of the Zakuban settlement to the territory of the Black Sea Cossack army
The article presents for the first time the project of Lieutenant-General N.S. Zavadovsky on the annexation of the Zakuban settlement to the land of the Black Sea Cossack army. Its implementation would strengthen Russian influence on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, secure the left bank of the Kuban, accelerate the development and settlement of the territory of the Zakuban settlement, and reduce the threat of attacks by non-peaceful highlanders on Cossack settlements. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the significance of the Trans-Kuban settlement for the Black Sea Cossack army and the Black Sea coastline, as well as for the settlement of the eastern coast of the Black Sea. The frontier theory was used as a methodological approach, which allows us to consider the Trans-Kuban settlement as one of the outposts of Russian influence in the North-Western Caucasus and on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. The article uses a retrospective, historical-genetic and systemic method.
It is shown that the appearance of the project of Lieutenant General N.S. Zavadovsky on the annexation of the Trans-Kuban settlement to the land of the Black Sea Cossack army was caused by several interrelated reasons. There was an increase in the number of the Cossack population and at the same time the military land fund, necessary for allocating land to the Cossacks, decreased. One of the ways to solve the current situation was to increase the area of the Black Sea Cossack army at the expense of the space of the lower Kuban-Anapa-Varenikovskaya wharf.
It is concluded that the refusal to implement the project of Lieutenant-General N.S. Zavadovsky was due to several reasons. One of them was the disagreement of the head of the Black Sea coastline to the transfer of the Zakuban settlement from his subordination to the Black Sea Cossack army. Another reason can be considered an increase in military danger in the region due to the threat of the start of a Russian-Turkish war and the impossibility in such conditions to carry out mass resettlement of the military and civilian population to new lands.
Key words: Anapa, Varenikovskaya pier, Trans-Kuban settlement, Natukhais, Lower Kuban, Black Sea Cossack army.
Innovative trends in the development and improvement of equipment for the fire and emergency warning system in St. Petersburg in the 19th - early 20th centuries
The article analyzes innovative trends in the development and improvement of the fire and emergency warning system in St. Petersburg.
The relevance of the article is due to the fact that some technical solutions of the St. Petersburg warning system about fires and emergencies in the XIX - early XX centuries. are the prototype of the corresponding systems at the present time.
The purpose of the study is to identify the main innovative trends in the development and improvement of electrical devices for the fire and emergency warning system as the most effective components in alerting fire departments about incidents in the capital of the Russian Empire.
An analysis of innovative trends in the development and improvement of fire and emergency warning system equipment showed its positive role in the warning system during the study period, and, of course, this is also relevant at the present time, taking into account the modern technical base, technical solutions and relevant historical experience.
Key words: innovative trends, technical progress, signaling, electrical signaling apparatus, warning system.
The study of ancient signs of a single Eurasian cult within the framework of a new science - signology (deciphering the sign "rhombus with a dot")
The confrontation of the West with Russia and the Russian world has shown the urgent need to strengthen the role of Russia in the modern world - in politics, economics, education, research of true historical events, in order to prevent their distortion. Signology, a science that appeared several years ago, studies the history of the origin, meaning and existence of signs of folk culture in all manifestations of folk art, everyday life, ritual objects, writing, etc. Connection with ethnography, archeology, history, dialectology, the Russian language, ancient Russian writing, cultural studies, DNA genealogy, astro-archeology and other related sciences is the basis of interdisciplinary research within the framework of signology. The research shows main markers of the fertility cult, which appeared since the Paleolithic on the Russian Plain and the Russian North, namely: yarga, rhombus, rhombo-yargic ornament. The multiple meaning of one of the most common signs of folk culture - a rhombus with a dot (a sign of fertility) and its inextricable connection with a single religious cult of Eurasia - from the Paleolithic to the Bronze Age (the cult of the Great Goddess - fertility cult) is stated. Research methods used in this article are comparative and visual.
Key words: signology, fertility signs, rhombus with a dot, rhombo-yargic ornament, a single cult of Eurasia.
Activity of the kaluga branch of the peasant land bank at the final stage of stolypin agrarian transformations (1914-1917)
The object of the study is Stolypin agrarian transformations at the beginning of the XX century, the subject of the study is the activity of the Kaluga branch of the Peasant Land Bank during the First World War. The methodological basis of the publication is based on such principles as scientific objectivity, historicism, consistency, which make it possible to establish cause-and-effect relationships of events, phenomena and processes in the dynamics. The source base of the study was made up of documents and materials of various origins: firstly, office documentation identified in the State Archive of the Kaluga Region, secondly, reference and statistical publications, and thirdly, materials of the central and local periodicals. For the first time in Russian historiography, the author set the task of analyzing this problem on the example of the region under study. The main attention in the article is paid to the conditions, dynamics, characteristics of the mortgage activity of the bank in the difficult conditions of the war. It is concluded that as a result of the long and destructive military conflict, loan assistance to householders was gradually reduced. The reverse process was the growth of the peasants' debt to the credit institution. At the same time, banking activities continued to maintain a land management orientation, stimulating the formation of individual farms. The results of the research can be used in the preparation of lecture courses, conducting practical classes, writing textbooks, etc.
Key words: Kaluga province, First World War, Peasant Land Bank, householders, bank stock, mediation activities.
The history of the emergence and hypotheses of the origin of the ethnonym Kurd
The article deals with the history of the emergence and hypotheses of the origin of the ethnonym kurd. The article considers both a brief history of the origin (from the 5th century BC) and various hypotheses of the origin of this ethnonym. The article also presents the opinions of experts on this issue (both foreign and Russian, such as P. Lerkt, O. Vilchevsky, B. Minorsky, M. Kachevsky, D. Mckenzie, etc, it discusses the arguments for and against each of the hypotheses. In the course of studying this issue the author of the article concluded that this problem requires even more in-depth study, because until now there is no consensus among scientists of this issue. However, more and more orientalists nowadays consider the kurds the most ancient people of the Zagros and the autochthonous population of Mesopotamia.
In the course of the study, the author applied the following methods: comparative-historical and comparative-comperative.
This topic is relevant today, because the Kurds are the largest people in the world (more than 45 mln.) that do not have their own state. How did it happen and what awaits this people in the future? Answers to these questions can be found if you plunge into the history of this ethnic group. The life of the Kurds is an eternal struggle for freedom.
This topic will be of interest not only to Specialists-Kurdologists, but also to a wide range of readers.
Key words: autochthonous population, ethnonym, toponym, Hurrians, Kurd, Medes, Parthians, Sorani, Kurmanji, Yezidism, Yezidis.
India and Asean: problems and prospects for cooperation
Many large States consider the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as an important economic partner. These include, in particular, India and China. Thanks to such cooperation, India expects to expand its geopolitical influence in the region and gain access to new sales markets The relevance of this topic from the point of view of scientific interest is due to the opportunity to analyze the state of bilateral relations between states and identify factors hindering their development.
Key words: India, ASEAN, cooperation, economic integration, free trade zone, investment relations.
Key Aspects of the International Organization of La Francophonie's Cooperation with the UN
The article attempts to analyze the key areas, formats, as well as mechanisms of interaction between the OIF and specialized UN agencies in such areas as linguistic policy, security, preventive diplomacy, peace consolidation and human rights development. In the framework of the research, the author focused on identifying aspects of practical cooperation between the IOF and UN agencies, including UNESCO, UNFPA, and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
Key words: UN, International Organization of La Francophonie (IOF), UNESCO, UNFPA, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights cooperation, the French language, globalization, cultural diversity.
The reflection of the English-Russian convention of 1907 and 1908 reval negotiations on the Ottoman Empire
This study focuses on the British's disagreements with Russia in the face of Germany's filling of the power vacuum that emerged in Europe at the beginning of the 10th century and Germany's penetration into the Near East. First of all, it was written on the effects and reflections of the "Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907" and the visit of King Edward 7 of England to Tsar Nicolas II in Reval in 1908, in order to strengthen this cooperation, on the Ottoman State. Britain's abandonment of the policy of protecting the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire by releasing Russia regarding the Straits and the Balkans was closely followed by both the Ottoman government (the Sublime Porte) and the Committee of Union and Progress, which was secretly organized against Sultan Abdulhamid II. The news that Tsar Nicholas II and King Edward II agreed to make reforms in Macedonia and that Macedonia would be taken from the Ottoman Empire spread among the soldiers and the public in a short time. The Committee of Union and Progress, dissatisfied with the rule of Sultan Abdulhamid II, started a political propaganda that the state was falling apart due to the passive foreign policy followed by Sultan Abdulhamid II. Upon the negative news from the Reval Meetings of Tsar Nicolas II and King Edward 7th, the Committee of Union and Progress started a rebellion process in Macedonia for Sultan Abdulhamid II to reopen the parliament and proclaim the constitution. Sultan Abdulhamid II, who could not control the developing events, had to declare the Second Constitutional Monarchy. Thus, this process caused the Ottoman Empire to change its regime.
Key words: Russia, Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, Revel Negotiations.
Zapata Ruiz Т.А.
The role of Native American languages in Latin America (on the example of Paraguay)
The article looks at the problem of preserving the Indian language in Paraguay, conditioned by the dominance of Spanish in all spheres of life in that Latin American country. In 1971, Guaraní received the official status, which not only greatly boosted its position, but also contributed to the preservation of Indian culture and national identity.
Key words: interaction of cultures, Hispanization, Guarani Indians, language policy, national language.
Russian language role in the development of international academic dialogue in the post-Soviet space (1991 - 2022)
The paper analyzes the formation of the Russian-speaking communicative space of the academic community of the CIS countries and the influence of this process on the development of international relations of the post-Soviet states. The author argues that the preservation of the positions of the Russian language as the language of academic science during the period of the 1990s - early 2020s. can be considered as a significant integration component of interstate and public relations in the post-Soviet space. At the same time, the academic community of the CIS countries carries out research and scientific information activities aimed at supporting the Russian-language scientific dialogue and the Russian language in general. The article notes the growing attention of the leadership of the CIS countries, state and public institutions to the development of scientific communications in Russian in the context of the modern dynamics of international relations in the Eurasian region.
Key words: post-Soviet space, CIS, EAEU, language policy, academic science, Russian language, scientific cooperation, scientific communications.
Russia's position towards the Kurdish problem
Although there is a long-standing relationship between the Kurds and Russia, but Russia has always used the Kurdish issue for its strategic interests in the Middle East, so the Kurdish issue has played a secondary role for Moscow in Russian foreign policy. But the Russian leadership has recently begun to pay more attention to events in the Middle East, trying to regain the positions it lost in this strategically important region after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The events of the so-called "Arab Spring" and the outbreak of the Islamic State (ISIS) wars changed Russia's attitude towards the Kurdish issue. In this article we will try to discuss the different attitudes of Russia towards the Kurds throughout the history of Russian relations. He begins by discussing the history of Russian-Kurdish relations, the issue of Russia's return to the Middle East and its limited support for the Kurdish side in the fight against ISIS in Syria and Iraq. This article emphasizes the role of the Kurds in Russian strategy. It discusses Moscow's position on the Syrian Kurds and the Iraqi Kurdistan referendum, and analyzes the political and economic motives that determine Russia's interest in strengthening cooperation with the Kurdistan Regional Government.
Key words: Kurdistan, Iraq, relationship, Kurds, oil and gas, Middle East.
Borodin M.P., Candidate of Historical Sciences, St. Petersburg University of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia named after the Hero of the Russian Federation, General of the Army E.N. Zinichev.
Dhouha Belfekih, Post-graduate student of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Theory and History of International Relations, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Gafari A.L., Second year postgraduate student. Russian University of Peoples' Friendship.
Gökhan Arslan, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University.
Laptev E.A., Associate Professor. Director of the Recreational and Health Center. Ufa University of Science and Technology.
Makhmutova E.A., Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences.
Mironova E.A., PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics and cross-cultural communication, Faculty of Linguistics and Journalism, Rostov State University of Economics.
Muhammad N.I., Graduate student. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Project N.S., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian History, Kuban State University.
Ratnikov R.E., Student of the direction of training "Information systems and technologies", Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University.
Shapovalov S.N., Candidate of Historical Sciences. Associate Professor of the Department of History of the Institute of History and Law, Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University.
Shpakovskaya M.A., Second year postgraduate student. Russian University of Peoples' Friendship.
Shuplenkov O.V., Associate Professor of the Department of history, law and social Sciences of the Stavropol state pedagogical Institute.
Shuplenkov N.O., Associate Professor of the Department of history, law and social Sciences of the Stavropol state pedagogical Institute.
Sorochan V.V., Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Informatics and Information Technology, Engineering and Technology Institute, Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University.
Teterkina O.A., Senior Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Zapata Ruiz Т.А., Senior Lecturer. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Zuev A.V., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Leningrad regional branch of St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.