|Geopolitics and patriotic education|
|Biryukov S.V., Karpov D.S. KPRF in the political system of Russia: the phenomenon of «systemic opposition»||9|
|History and society
|Kriazheva-Kartseva E.V. The formation of an orthodox assessment of religious marginality at the beginning of the 20th century: the case study of theosophy||22|
|Adzhieva Z.I., Batchaeva M.K. Staffing of the organization and functioning of trade unions in the northern Caucasus in the 20th of the 20th century (on the example of the Karachayev autonomous region)||31|
|Khoroshenkova A.V., Kozmenko V.M., Grigoryeva N.А., Drobysheva L.V. The role of higher education in the formation of the historical social and cultural environment of the Lower Volga region in 1917-1930 years||38|
|Amin Hafizullah Features of interaction between Afghanistan and India in the political and diplomatic sphere||48|
|Chernenko D.A. Novokhopersk in the late 18th - early 19th centuries (based on the materials of the General Survey)||56|
|Adzhieva Z.I., Batchaeva M.K., Atabiev A.R. Formation and development of the system of execution of punishments in Russia in the second half of the XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries||63|
|Tsegleev E.A., Chirkin S.A. The March of the Swedish Squadron to Arkhangelsk in 1701||73|
|Amin Hafizullah, Qayum Masud Water diplomacy between Afghanistan and Iran on the example of the Helmand Sea||79|
KPRF in the political system of Russia: the phenomenon of «systemic opposition»
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF) is one of the country's leading political parties, officially active since 1992, and the largest left — wing party in the Russian Federation. Formally, the Communist Party traces its continuity from the CPSU, but at the same time it is deeply integrated into the new Russian political context. The Communist Party adapts its program to new political realities and at the same time remains one of the few ideological parties in Russia. By combining a certain continuity and ideological and political innovations, the Communist Party achieved not only the preservation of its status within the existing political system, but also the ability to influence political processes. Thanks to the strategy chosen by the party leadership, the Communist Party is one of three parties that participated in all the elections to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, and one of two all-Russian political parties (along with the LDPR) that were represented in all six convocations of the federal Parliament. At the same time, the new political realities that developed in the 2000s and 2010s required further changes in strategy and tactics from the Communist Party. The authors of the article aim to assess the effectiveness of the political strategy chosen by the leadership of the Communist Party, and based on this-the prospects of the party in the current political situation.
Keywords: KPRF, political system, elections, left-wing parties, systemic opposition.
The formation of an orthodox assessment of religious marginality at the beginning of the 20th century: the case study of theosophy
The purpose of this article is to present the trends in the study of the problem of marginal religiosity in Russia as a part of spiritual life. The attention is focused on the traditions of studying the doctrine and activities of the Theosophical Society in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. The author comes to the conclusion that Russian historiography is characterized, in the main, by a critical approach to the assessment of this movement, which was formed at the beginning of the century under the influence of the Orthodox ideological principles of the authors of the research.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, Historiography of new religious movements marginal religiosity, esoterics, theosophy, occultism, religious tradition.
Staffing of the organization and functioning of trade unions in the northern Caucasus in the 20th of the 20th century (on the example of the Karachayev autonomous region)
The article is devoted to the topic of the formation of the Soviet trade union movement of the KAO. In modern Russia, the trade union movement is going through a difficult period, as it often does not cope with its functions or does not fulfill them at all. Trade unions are essentially supposed to defend workers' rights to employers, although in reality they cooperate with them. In Soviet times, trade unions played a huge role in the formation of the organs of Soviet power. In order to solve the problem of modern trade unions, it is necessary to turn to the history of their formation in the USSR and analyze the lessons of the past.
Keywords: trade unions, nomenklatura, trade union elite, personnel policy, trade union management bodies.
The role of higher education in the formation of the historical social and cultural environment of the Lower Volga region in 1917-1930 years
The article, which continues the series of publications of the author on the history of the higher historical education and science in the Soviet period, the evolution of higher education historic Lower Volga region in the Soviet period. On the basis of diverse historical sources, analyzes the role of faculties and departments, universities historians Lower Volga region in the formation of social and cultural environment of the region. Noted their importance in the formation of teaching staff in the region, the formation of museums and archives, scientific and educational work, the study of regional history. Put into scientific circulation new archival sources. A comprehensive analysis of macro and micro factors that determined the folding structure of the regional system of higher historical education, its subsequent reform, particularly the formation, activities and relationships of the teaching staff, social structure and specificity of formation of the student body, and others. Identify and describe the stages of development of higher History Education Lower Volga region.
Keywords: higher historical education, Saratov State University, Astrakhan Pedagogical Institute, Volgograd Pedagogical Institute, Kalmyk Pedagogical Institute, Faculty of History, historical discipline, scientific school.
Features of interaction between Afghanistan and India in the political and diplomatic sphere
International relations in a general sense are a very broad sphere, because they include all types of relations, from political to economic, cultural, commercial and so on.
Currently, there are more than 196 countries that can maintain bilateral and multilateral political, economic, cultural, trade and other relations with each other and with various international organizations.
International relations in a general sense, of course, have existed for thousands of years since the emergence of various nations and states.
The scriptures we have about India, China, Greece and the relations between the empires of that time show that centuries before Christ, great thinkers and philosophers about the quality of relations between nations and peoples and governments, kings, emperors and rulers, theories declared that, despite over the centuries, some of them are still relevant and important.
This is evidenced by the works of Plato and Aristotle. The history of the Peloponnesian Wars is a prime example of the analysis of international relations.
Nevertheless, international relations as a discipline emerged a little over half a century ago, but the first department of international relations, which, of course, was more concerned with the study of the history of international relations, was created in 1919 at the University of Wales in England.
The fact that international relations arose at that time was by no means accidental. The reason is that there were various events that complicate international relations. Below is a summary of some of the events that have complicated international relations since the early twentieth century.
1. Transfer of the center of power from Europe to other places.
2. The emergence of science and technology as important factors that directly affect international relations.
3. Continuous progress in the creation and strengthening of various international organizations.
4. The collapse of colonial empires and the emergence of developing and newly independent countries.
5. The gradual disappearance of some of the old distinctions between war and peace and the emergence of phenomena such as the Cold War.
Thus, the factors mentioned above led to the emergence of international relations, which were briefly mentioned in the introduction to your service.
Keywords: India, Afghanistan, strategic relations between India and Afghanistan, international, relations, political, diplomatic.
Novokhopersk in the late 18th - early 19th centuries (based on the materials of the General Survey)
The spatial and economic characteristics of the city of Novokhopersk, founded as a fortress on the site of the town of the Cossacks, who constituted its garrison at the initial stage of its existence, is presented in the article. Economic notes and cartographic materials created during the General Land Survey in the late 18th and early 19th centuries served as the main sources for this article. Comparison of these materials with the legislation of the 1720s - 1750s. suggests that in the second half of the XVIII - early XIX century. Novokhopersk, which lost its military and defensive significance in the first half of the 18th century, turned into an important trade center with a predominance of merchants and philistines in the social structure of the population.
Keywords: history of cities, Voronezh province, General land surveying, socio-economic history, history of the Cossacks.
Formation and development of the system of execution of punishments in Russia in the second half of the XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries
The object of this study is the history of the use of corporal punishment in the penitentiary institutions of the Russian Empire. The article analyzes the reasons for the spread of the practice of corporal punishment and their "class", and the fact that often the execution of the death penalty was veiled by corporal punishment. The definition of the concept of corporal punishment and its types are given, as well as the categories of crimes for which they were assigned. the authors note that the reform of the penitentiary system in the period under review is half-hearted.
Keywords: penal system, penal system, legislation, corporal punishment, execution, execution of sentence, imprisonment, reform of the prison system.
The March of the Swedish Squadron to Arkhangelsk in 1701
The article examines the campaign of the Swedish squadron to Arkhangelsk in 1701 and the repulsion of the attack. The victory at Arkhangelsk was the first significant success of the Russians in the Northern War. The first enemy naval vessels and the first foreign naval flags were taken as trophies. The salvation of Arkhangelsk as the only seaport of Russia in the North and one of the cradles of the Russian fleet was strategically important. Under the conditions of a shortage of troops, the wide participation of the people – townspeople and peasants-pomors played an important role in the victory.
Keywords: squadron, fleet, battle, sea, Arkhangelsk, Russia, Sweden, march.
Water diplomacy between Afghanistan and Iran on the example of the Helmand Sea
Afghanistan and Iran are two countries that have common features, and one might even say that they have a religious, historical, cultural and political unity, and most importantly, a common history and destiny, common victories and defeats.
On the positive side in relations between the two countries, there were no serious conflicts in political relations between the two countries that could cause problems. In the last century, relations between the two countries have always developed. Especially after the fall of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, Iran played a key role as one of the important assistants in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. Both sides have always tried to develop and expand relations in various areas of politics, economy, trade, transport, culture, security and other areas. However, there were issues on which both sides had their own positions. One such problem is the water from Afghanistan in the west of the country, which flows into Iran.
Afghanistan and Iran have mutual needs for each other, including the needs of the eastern regions of Afghanistan for Afghan waters, Afghanistan's needs for economic assistance, political support and access to alternative transit routes and international waters. This is one of the ports of Afghanistan. Iran. Both sides have always tried to solve water problems through negotiations, as evidenced by the signing of an agreement between Afghanistan and Iran on Helmand water. Failure to fully implement the treaty harms Afghanistan.
Given this situation, the question can be asked: what factor was involved in the divergence in water diplomacy between Afghanistan and Iran in the Helmand Sea?
In this case, several hypotheses are considered:
Hypothesis 1: One of the reasons for the divergence of diplomacy between Afghanistan and Iran over the Helmand Sea was the civil war, lack of technical facilities and water specialists in Afghanistan.
Hypothesis 2: The second factor that caused the divergence in diplomacy between Afghanistan and Iran was the incomplete implementation of the Afghan-Iranian agreement on the Helmand Sea water and the country's urgent need for water in Sistan and Baluchistan.
Hypothesis 3: One of the main reasons for the divergence in water diplomacy between Afghanistan and Iran was the instrumental use of Afghan refugees in that country against Afghanistan in water diplomacy between the two countries.
But what I think is the main reason for the differences in water diplomacy between Afghanistan and Iran is the incomplete implementation of the Helmand Sea Treaty and the country's urgent need for water in Sistan and Baluchistan, because Iran considers the Helmand Sea water to be the lifeblood of Sistan and Baluchistan. Iran in these areas is sorely lacking water, and therefore he tried in every possible way to use the water of the Helmand Sea as much as possible, putting pressure on Afghanistan.
Keywords: foreign policy of Afghanistan, Helmand Sea, Harirod Sea, water diplomacy, Iranian foreign policy and international maritime law.
Adzhieva Z.I., Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State and Legal Disciplines. North Caucasus State Academy.
Amin Hafizullah, Department of Theory and History of International Relations. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Atabiev A.R., National Research University "High School of Economics".
Batchaeva M.K., Candidate of Historical Sciences Associate Professor of the Department of General History. Alieva Karachay-Cherkess State University.
Chirkin S.A., Candidate of historical sciences, Associate professor. Federal State-Financed Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education. The Vyatka State Agricultural Academy.
Chernenko D.A., Candidate of historical sciences, Associate professor. Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Biryukov S.V., Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of Department of Political Sciences and Technologies of the Siberian Institute of Management. National School of Public and Business Administration (RANEPA), (Novosibirsk). Senior researcher of Center for Russian studies at East China Normal University (Shanghai, PRC). Professor of Department of Political Sciences of National Research Tomsk State University (Tomsk). Professor of Department of History of Kemerovo State Medical University (Kemerovo).
Drobysheva L.V., PhD, Associate Professor, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Grigoryeva N.А., Doctor of Science, Professor, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Karpov D.S., Post-graduate student of Department of Political Science and technologies, Siberian Institute of Management. National School of Public and Business Administration, Novosibirsk.
Khoroshenkova A.V., PhD, Associate Professor, Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University.
Kozmenko V.M., Doctor of Science, Professor, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Kriazheva-Kartseva E.V., PhD, Professor of the Department of Russian History, of The Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Qayum Masud, Department of Political Analysis and Management. Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Tsegleev E.A., Candidate of historical sciences, Associate professor. Federal State-Financed Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education. The Vyatka State Agricultural Academy.